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Citing and Writing Guide - MLA, APA, CSE, Chicago/Turabian, ACS: APA Style

Information on writing and grammar, copyright, and citation styles.

What Is APA?

The APA (American Psychological Association) style is most often used for the social sciences, such as education, sociology, or psychology. Aside from these online sources, you can also view the library's copy of the style manual in the reference section:

Helpful APA Guides

Parenthetical Citation Examples

For citing in-text quotations, the basic format is the author-date system within parentheses, for example: (Larson 2003)

If you reference the author's name within your sentence, you only need to put the year within parentheses, for example: Brinkman and Jedinak argue the importance for young girls to have 'female superheroes' as role models (2014).

Aside from citing parenthetically, you should also include a References page at the end of your paper.

Writing Citations--Examples Correspond Below

Website

Author last name, First initial. (year). Title of web page. Retrieved from URL

Book Chapter

Author last name, First initial. (year). Title of chapter. In specific edition (Eds.), Title of book (pp. pages). Place of publication: Publisher. 

Article

Author last name, First initial. (year). Article title. Title of Journal, Volume(issue), pages. Retrieved from URL 

Book

Author's last name, First initial. (year). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. 

Film

Producer last name, first initial. (Producer), & Director last name, First initial. (Director). (year) Title of film. [Motion Picture]. Country of origin: studio/distributer. 

Works Cited Page Examples

Any citation that exceeds one line needs a hanging indent. Only the first word of a title is capitalized, it is the title of a Journal, it is following punctuation, or is a proper noun. Periods do not follow URL addresses

 

References

 

Bass, R. (1997). Technology & learning: A brief guide to interactive multimedia and the study of the United States. Retrieved from http://www.georgetown.edu/crossroads/multimedia.html

Denmark, F. L. (1991). Enhancing the development of adolescent girls. In N.G. Johnson & M.C. Roberts (Eds.), Beyond appearance: A new look at adolescent girls (pp. 377-404). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. 

Dorman, S. M. (1997). Video and computer games: Effect on children and implications for health education. Journal of School Health, 67(4), 133-138. Retrieved from go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?issn=0022-4391&v=2.1&u=unc_main&it=JIourl&P=AONE&sw=w

Kurlanksy, M. (2002). Salt: A world history. New York, NY: Walker.

Roven, C., Snyder, D., Snyder, Z., and Suckle, R. (Producers), & Jenkins, P. (Director). (2017) Wonder Woman. [Motion Picture]. United States: Warner Bros. Pictures.