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Citing and Writing Guide: ASA Style

Information on writing and grammar, copyright, and citation styles.

What Is ASA?

The ASA (American Sociological Association) style is most often used in the social sciences, particularly sociology. Aside from these online sources, you can also view the library's copy of the style manual in the reference section:

Helpful ASA Guides

In-text Citation Examples

General Format

If you reference the author's name in the sentence, then you must follow the information with the year of the published work. 

Sorokin  (1947) claims that biology doesn't change in an individual when status can.

If you do not reference the author's name, they must be included in your citation.

Even when status changes biology doesn't. (Sorokin 1947)

Direct Quotes

When using direct quotes you must cite the pagination as well. 

As Sorokin (1947:293) states, "Even the highest leaders of some of the unibonded groups find themselves excluded from various consolidated aristocricies."

Multiple Authors

Two Authors

(Edling and Rydgren 2011)

Three Authors 

First citation: (Abbas, Ashwin, and McLean 2016)

Succeeding citations: (Abbas et al. 2016)

Four or More Authors

(Guppy et al. 2017)

Reference Page Examples

Please note that all citations exceeding one line should use a hanging indent. And the Reference Page should be organized alphabetically. If you are using multiple works by the same author, sort those by date (oldest-most recent.)


One Author

Author (last name, first name). Year. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Sorokin, Pitirim A. 1947. Society, Culture, and Personality: Their Structure and Dynamics. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers. 

Multiple Authors

First author (last name, first name), other authors (first name last name). Year. Title of Book. Abbreviated edition if necessary (1st, 2nd, or 3rd ed.). Place of publication: Publisher. 

Gottfredson, Michael R. and Travis Hirschi. 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 

Edited Volume

Editor[s] name (last name, first name--if there are other editors they follow with first name last name), eds. Year. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher. 

Edling, Christofer and Jens Rydgren, eds. 2011. Sociological Insights of Great Thinkers: Sociology Through Literature, Philosophy, and Science. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC. 

Book Chapter

Chapter author (last name, first name). Year. "Title of Chapter." Pp. page numbers in Title of Book, edited by (first initial. last name). Place of publication: Publisher. 

Martin, John Levi. 2011. "Immanuel Kant: An Analytic Grammar for the Relation Between Cognition and Action." Pp. 179-188 in Sociological Insights of Great Thinkers: Sociology Through Literature, Philosophy, and Science, edited by C. Edling and J. Rydgren. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC. 

Other Resources

Journal Article

Authors name (last name, first name). Year. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume number(issue number):page numbers.

Bulai, Alfred. 2018. "Is Public Sociology Possible? Reconstruction of Sociology Through Communicative Action." Journal of Media Research 11(1):71-81.


Author or Corporate Author (last name, first name). Year. "Web Page Title." Retrieval date(URL).

American Sociological Association. 2018. "About ASA." Retrieved June 13, 2018(