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Citing and Writing Guide: APA Style

Information on writing and grammar, copyright, and citation styles.

What Is APA?

The APA (American Psychological Association) style is most often used for the social sciences, such as education, sociology, or psychology. Aside from these online sources, you can also view the library's copy of the style manual in the reference section:

Helpful APA Guides

Parenthetical Citation Examples

For citing in-text quotations, the basic format is the author-date system within parentheses, for example: (Larson, 2003)

If you reference the author's name within your sentence, you only need to put the year within parentheses, for example: Brinkman and Jedinak (2014) argue the importance for young girls to have 'female superheroes' as role models.

If there are 3 or more authors you list use et al. for the citation. 

Aside from citing parenthetically, you should also include a References page at the end of your paper.

Formatting References for Reference Page


Author last name, First initial. (year). Title of web page. Web site name. URL

Book Chapter

Last Name, First Initial. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In E. Editor (Eds.), Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (pp. pages of chapter).



Last Name, Firs Initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol.(Issue), page numbers. DOI 

NOTE: If an article does not have a DOI and is from a database, do NOT use the URL. The citation will end with the page numbers. If you received the article from its website INCLUDE the URL. 


Last Name, First Initial. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name.


Director Last Name, First Initial D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Film]. Production company.

Reference Page Example

Any citation that exceeds one line needs a hanging indent. Only the first word of a title is capitalized unless: it is the title of a Journal, it is following punctuation, or is a proper noun. Periods do not follow URL addresses

References should be listed in alphabetical order.


Reference Page


Gerwig, G. (Director). (2019). Little Women [Film]. Columbia Pictures. 

Greene, D. (2019). Illuminating shadowed histories: Centering black women's activism in Selma. Black Camera: The New Series, 10(2), 211-225.

Joy, A. (2020). Book of the Week: Black Is a Rainbow Color. CCBlogC.

Porath, J. (2016). Rejected princesses: Tales of history's boldest heroines, hellions & heretics. HarperCollins.

Reynolds, S. (1994). Regnal sentiments and medieval communities. In J. Hutchinson & A. D. Smith (Eds.), Nationalism (pp. 137-140). Oxford 

University Press.